June Science News

Magnesium Supplementation is Heart Healthy
Epidemiologic studies have suggested a protective effect of magnesium (Mg) intake on cardiovascular disease risk. Researchers from the Maastricckt University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands performed a 24 wk, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to evaluate the effects of long-term Mg supplementation on arterial stiffness. Fifty-two overweight and slightly obese individuals (30 men and 22 postmenopausal women) were randomly allocated to receive either 3 times daily Mg (3 × 117 mg or 350 mg/d) or placebo capsules. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVc-f) was assessed at baseline, after 12 wk, and at week 24. Researchers found that daily Mg supplemention of 350 mg for 24 wk in overweight and obese adults reduces arterial stiffness, as estimated by a decrease in PWVc-f, suggesting a potential mechanism by which an increased dietary Mg intake beneficially affects cardiovascular health. (Joris PJ, Plat J, Bakker SJ, Mensink RP. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr 6. Pii: ajcn131466). Max Nutraceuticals Featured Product: Magnesium

CLA Reduces Body Fat and Supports Healthy Energy Metabolism
Researchers from the Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundacao Universitaria de Cardiologia Brazil have reviewed the published scientific literature on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis, and cancer has been proven in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize glycogen, and potentiate bone mineralization. CLA supplementation also could increase the lipolysis and reduce the accumulation of fatty acids on the adipose tissue. Researchers concluded that CLA has many benefits on energy metabolism and body composition. (Lehnen TE, et al. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Sep 17;12:36). Max Muscle Featured Product: CLA

Alpha Lipoic Acid and EPA Promotes Body Weight Loss in Overweight/Obese Women
Researchers from the University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain set out to evaluate the potential body weight-lowering effects of dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and α-lipoic (ALA) acid separately or combined in healthy overweight/obese women following energy-restricted diets. Of the randomized participants, 97 women received the allocated treatment [Control, EPA, ALA, and combined EPA/ALA], and 77 volunteers completed the 10-week study. Results showed body weight loss was greatest in those groups supplemented with EPA/ALA. The intervention suggests that ALA supplementation alone or in combination with EPA helps to promote body weight loss in healthy overweight/obese women following energy-restricted diets. (Huerta
AE, et al. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Feb;23(2):313-21). Max Nutraceuticals  Featured Products: Alpha Lipoic Acid and Omega 3 Plus


May Science News

Creatine Supplementation Enhances Plyometric Training in Women Soccer Players
Researchers at the Universidad de Los Lagos, Chile investigated the effects plyometric training and creatine supplementation on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players. Subjects were assigned to a plyometric training group receiving placebo (PLACEBO), a plyometric training group receiving creatine supplementation (CREATINE), or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric program (CONTROL). Athletes were evaluated for jumping, maximal and repeated sprinting, endurance, and change-of-direction speed performance before and after six weeks of training. After intervention, the CONTROL group did not change, whereas both plyometric training groups improved jumps, sprint, repeated sprinting, endurance, and change-of-direction speed performance. However, the CREATINE group improved more in the jumps and repeated sprinting performance tests than the CONTROL and the PLACEBO groups. Researchers concluded that adaptations to plyometric training may be enhanced with creatine supplementation. (Ramiriz-Campillo R, et al. J Sci Med Sport. 2015 Nov 6. Pii: S1440-2440(15)00205-4.). MMSN Featured Product: Max Creatine

Whey Protein Improves Body Composition and Performance in Female Basketball Players
Researchers from the University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton TX examined if whey protein (WP) supplementation improved body composition and performance measures in NCAA Division III female basketball players. Subjects were assigned to consume 24 g WP or 24 g of maltodextrin (MD) immediately prior to and following training (4 days/week anaerobic and resistance training) for 8 weeks. The WP group gained lean mass and also lost fat mass. The WP group presented greater gains in 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press compared with the MD group. Moreover, the WP group improved agility whereas the MD group did not. This study demonstrates that 8 weeks of WP supplementation improves body composition and select performance variables in previously trained female athletes. (Taylor LW, et al. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Mar;41(3):249-54). MMSN Featured Product: Max Pure Whey

Phosphatidic Acid Amplifies Muscle Protein Synthesis
It is well established the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Over the last decade, a key role has been proposed for phosphatidic acid (PA) in mTOR activation. Researchers at the University of Birmingham, UK conducted a review to critically examine available evidence from cell cultures, animal, and human experimental models to provide an overview of the mechanisms through which PA may act to promote muscle anabolism. Mechanical load-induced (i.e. resistance exercise) intramuscular PA can directly bind to and activate mTOR. Researchers concluded that endogenously generated PA and dietary supplemented PA appear to act through distinct mechanisms that converge on mTOR and potentially amplifies muscle protein synthesis. (Shad BJ, et al. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Dec;40(12):1233-41). MMSN Featured Product: MaxxTOR


April Science News

L-Citrulline Improves Cycling Performance
L-Citrulline is an amino acid present in the body and is a potent endogenous precursor of L-arginine, which is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase. Many human studies report that nitric oxide improves sport performance. Researchers from Kitasato University, Tokyo, Japan investigated the effect of oral L-citrulline supplementation on cycling time trial performance in humans. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study was employed. Twenty-two trained males consumed 2.4 g/day of L-citrulline or placebo orally for 7 days. On Day 8 they took 2.4 g of L-citrulline or placebo 1 h before a 4-km cycling time trial. Researchers found that L-Citrulline supplementation significantly increased plasma L-arginine levels and reduced completion time by 1.5 percent compared with placebo. Moreover, L-citrulline significantly improved subjective feelings of muscle fatigue and concentration immediately after exercise. (Suzuki T et al. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Feb 19;13:6). Featured Product: FBX 2.0

Researchers from Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea investigated the effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) on body weight, fat loss, and metabolic markers of obese Korean participants in a 12 week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The 80 subjects were randomly divided into the GP supplemented or placebo groups. During 12 weeks of GP supplementation, total abdominal fat area, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and BMI were significantly decreased in the GP group compared to the placebo group. No clinically significant changes in any safety parameter were observed. Researchers concluded that GP is a potent anti-obesity reagent that does not produce any significant adverse effects. (Park SH, et al. Obesity. 2014 Jan;22(1):63-71).
Featured Product: Emerge HC

Benefits of CoQ10
A systematic review of the scientific literature on Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and exercise was conducted by researchers from the University of Grenada, Spain. CoQ10 is a lipid-soluble compound that functions as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain. This compound is prevalent in humans in all tissues and organs in the body, although it is synthesized and concentrated mainly in tissues with high-energy turnover. High intensity exercise induces inflammatory reactions together with a high production of free radicals, muscle damage and inflammation indicated by muscle soreness and swelling, prolonged loss of muscle function, and leakage of muscle proteins, such as creatine kinase and myoglobin, into the circulation. Based on this systematic review of the published scientific literature, these researchers concluded that CoQ10 provides many benefits in exercise outcomes. (Sarmiento A, et al. Curr Drug Metab. 2015 Nov 2). Featured Product: MN CoQ10


March Science News

BCAA Supplementation Promotes Fat Loss in Trained Males
Researchers at the College of Charleston, Charleston, SC set out to determine the effectiveness of a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplement, in conjunction with heavy resistance training and a carbohydrate caloric-restricted “cut diet” on body composition and muscle fitness. Seventeen resistance-trained males were randomized to a BCAA group or a carbohydrate (CHO) group for 8 weeks and prescribed a bodybuilding style resistance training protocol. Subjects were prescribed a hypocaloric diet that was followed during the study. The BCAA group lost fat mass and maintained lean mass, while the CHO group lost lean mass and body mass. Researchers concluded that BCAA supplementation in trained individuals performing resistance training while on a hypocaloric diet can maintain lean mass and preserve skeletal muscle performance while losing fat mass. (Dudgeon WD, et al. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Jan 5;13:1). MMSN Featured Product: Pro BCAA

Relief for Osteoarthritis of the Knee
Researchers at the Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India conducted a study to compare the efficacy and safety of oral glucosamine (Glu), methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), their combination, and a placebo in osteoarthritis of the knee. A total of 118 patients of either sex with mild to moderate osteoarthritis were included in the study and randomized to receive either Glu 500mg, MSM 500mg, Glu, and MSM or placebo capsules three times daily for 12 weeks. Results showed that Glu, MSM, and their combination significantly improved multiple signs and symptoms (pain, swelling, and overall joint function) of osteoarthritis compared with placebo. Researchers concluded that the combination of Glu and MSM provides better and more rapid improvement in patients with osteoarthritis. (Usha PR, Naidu MU. Clin Drug Investig. 2004;24(6):353-63). MMSN Featured Product: Joint Relief 2.0

A Natural Boost for Testosterone and Sexual Function
A study was conducted to examine the effect of Testofen (600 mg/day for 12 weeks) on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function, and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males. Researchers from the University of Sydney, Australia designed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial involving 120 healthy men aged between 43 and 70. Results showed sexual function improved, including number of morning erections and frequency of sexual activity. Both total serum testosterone and free testosterone increased compared to placebo. Researchers concluded Testofen to be a safe and effective treatment for reducing symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, improves sexual function, and increases serum testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men. (Rao A, et al. The Aging Male 2016 DOI: 10.3109/13685538.2015.1135323). MMSN Featured Product: 2TX


February Science News

Carnitine: Good for Weight Loss and More!
Researchers at the Kashan University of Medical Sciences designed at study to determine the effects of oral carnitine supplementation on weight loss, glycemic, and lipid profiles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 overweight women diagnosed with PCOS received 250 mg carnitine supplements or placebo for 12 weeks. Results showed that 12 weeks of carnitine administration in PCOS women resulted in reductions in weight, BMI, waist circumference, and hip circumference, and beneficial effects on glycemic control. These findings may also benefit women without PCOS. (Samimi M, Jamilian M, Afshar Ebrahimi F, et al. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2015 Dec 15. Doi: 10.1111/cen.13003). MMSN Featured Product: LiquiCarn

Magnesium is Good For Muscles!
Magnesium (Mg) could play a role in prevention of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, power, and strength directly through physiological mechanisms or indirectly through an impact on chronic low-grade inflammation. Researchers from the University of East Anglia and King’s College London, UK conducted a cross-sectional study of 2,570 women ages 18 to 79 years, examining associations between intakes of Mg and measurements of muscle mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) methods, leg explosive power (LEP), and grip strength. Investigators found a significant positive association between a higher Mg and indices of skeletal muscle mass and LEP. Researchers concluded that dietary Mg may aid conservation of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and power in women of all ages. (Welch AA, Kelaiditi E, Jennings A, et al. J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Aug 19. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2692). MN Featured Product: Magnesium

Relief for Joint Pain
Researchers from the University of Memphis set out to determine the effects of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) supplementation in healthy, exercise-trained men with joint-specific pain. Twenty-nine men between the ages of 20 and 46 years, who reportedly experienced chronic joint pain as a result of strenuous exercise, participated in the pilot study. All men received 3.2g CQ daily for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included a questionnaire to determine their degree of joint pain (WOMAC) and clinical measurements (heart rate, blood pressure, blood biomarkers). Subjects taking the CS showed statistical reductions in WOMAC scores with no adverse clinical changes. Research concluded that an 8-week course of supplementation with CQ reduced joint pain in a sample of 29 young, otherwise healthy, exercise-trained men. (Bloomer RJ, et al. Phys Sportmed. 2013 Sep;41(3):29-35). MMSN Featured Product: Joint Relief 2.0


Dr. Harvey’s 200th Supplement!

Dr. Phil Harvey, Max Muscle’s Chief Science Officer, is shown here with many of the products he’s created since coming on board with Max Muscle less than 10 years ago. And, he’s celebrating the creation of his 200th supplement!

“You can accomplish a lot when you are having fun and working with a such a dedicated and hard-working product development team.  I am looking forward to developing and orchestrating the launch of many more great products in the future”.

Boost Your Biceps With Pea Protein
Researchers at the National Institute for Health and Medical Research, Dijon, France conducted a study comparing the impact of supplementation with pea protein vs. whey protein vs. placebo on biceps brachii muscle thickness and strength. One hundred and sixty one males ages 18 to 35 years were enrolled in the study. Participants took 25 g of either protein or placebo twice a day during a 12-week training period. Results showed a significant time effect for biceps brachii muscle thickness. Performing a sensitivity study on the weakest participants (with regards to strength at inclusion), thickness increases were significantly different between groups for pea or whey vs. placebo. In addition to an appropriate training, the supplementation with pea protein promoted a greater increase of muscle thickness as compared to placebo and especially for people starting or returning to a muscular strengthening program. Researchers concluded that pea protein could be used as an alternative to whey-based dietary products for muscle thickness and strength. (Babault N, Paizis C, et al. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:3). Featured Product: Naturliga Protein

L-Carnitine Soothes Muscles
A study was conducted to assess the effect of two week L-carnitine supplementation on known markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage following acute bouts of exercise. Researchers from the University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran recruited 21 active healthy men and were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled design into two groups: L-carnitine (C) and placebo (P). Subjects consumed either L-carnitine (2000 mg) or placebo daily for 14 days. On the day of the test, participants were asked to run 14 km on the track at their highest ability. Blood samples were taken immediately, 2, and 24 hours after exercise. Plasma total antioxidant capacity significantly increased 14 days after supplementation and 24h after exercise in C group compared with P group. Serum malondialdehyde as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) as a marker of lipid peroxidation, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as markers of muscle damage were significantly lower 24h after exercise in C group compared with P group. Researchers concluded that two week daily oral supplementation of L-carnitine has alleviating effects on lipid peroxidation and muscle damage markers following an acute bout of exercise in active healthy young men. (Parandak K, Arazi H, Khoshkhahesh F, Nakhostin-Roohi B. Asian J Sports Med. 2014 Jun;5:123-8). MMSN Featured Product: LIQUICARN

Glutamine Makes the Gut Happy!
Researchers from Section of Critical Care Medicine, USDA and Baylor College of Medicine set out to evaluate the contribution of glutamine to gut function and the synthesis of citrulline. Researchers reviewed the published literature and reviewed the evidence that glutamine supplementation increases citrulline production. Clinically, glutamine supplementation has been proposed in the treatment of critically ill patients with beneficial outcomes. The beneficial effects of glutamine supplementation may be partially mediated by the effects of glutamine on citrulline synthesis by the gut and the de-novo synthesis of arginine by the kidney and other tissues. Researchers concluded that glutamine is a major precursor for citrulline synthesis in humans and that glutamine has the potential to increase overall gut function. (Marini JC. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Nov 14). MMSN Featured Product: Max Glutamine


December Science News

Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine Enhances Muscle Performance
The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if 6 days of supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (A-GPC) would augment isometric force production.   The study was conducted at the School of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana.  Thirteen college-aged males participated in a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design study.  At the beginning of the study, participants consumed either 600 mg/day of A-GPC or placebo and at the end of 6 days performed isometric mid-thigh pulls and an upper body isometric test.  The A-GPC treatment resulted in significantly greater isometric mid-thigh pull peak force change from baseline compared to placebo.  For the upper body test the A-GPC treatment trended towards greater change from baseline force production but failed to obtain statistical significance.  Researchers concluded A-GPC is effective at increasing lower body force production after 6 days of supplementation and should be considered for speed and power athletes to enhance muscle performance.  (Bellar D, LeBlanc NR, Campbell B.  J Int Soc Sports Nutr.  2015;12:42).  MMSN Featured Product:  GHTX 

Magnesium Enhances Skeletal Muscle Power and Indices of Muscle Mass in Women
Researchers at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK conducted a cross-sectional study of 2570 women aged 18 to 79 years examining the associations between intakes of Mg, estimated using a food-frequency questionnaire, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived measures of muscle mass, leg explosive power (LEP), and grip strength.  They also examined associations between circulating hs-CRP (C-reactive protein) and muscle mass.  Significant positive associations were found between a higher Mg and indices of skeletal muscle mass and LEP, and also with hs-CRP.  They also found that higher hs-CRP was negatively associated with skeletal muscle mass with the greatest benefits in women older than 50 years.  Researchers concluded that dietary Mg may aid in the conservation of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and power in women of all ages.  (Welch AA, Kelaiditi E, Jennings A, et al.  J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Aug 19. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2692).  MN Featured Product:  Magnesium

Effects of Zinc Supplementation on Serum Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of zinc (Zn) supplementation on serum lipids in humans and have demonstrated varying results.  This inspired researchers at the University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka to conduct a systematic review of the literature and performed a meta-analysis on the effects of Zn supplementation on serum lipids.  A total of 24 studies were included in the meta-analysis, which included a total of 33 Zn interventions, in a total of 14,515 participants in the Zn intervention or control group.  The dose of elemental Zn supplemented ranged from 15-240 mg/day. The pooled mean difference for total cholesterol between Zn supplemented and placebo groups from random effects analysis was -10.92 mg/dl, while for HDL cholesterol it was 2.12 mg/dl. The pooled mean difference for LDL-c between Zn supplemented and placebo group from random effect analysis was -6.87 mg/dl and for triglycerides was -10.92 mg/dl.  Researchers concluded that Zn supplementation has favorable effects on plasma lipid parameters.  Zn supplementation significantly reduces total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and may have the potential to reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis related morbidity and mortality.  (Ranasinghe P, Wathurapatha WS, Ishara MH, et al.  Nutr Metab (Lond). 2015 Aug 4;12:26).  MN Featured Product:  Zinc


November Science News

Study Shows HMB Beneficial for Endurance Athletes
There are a limited number of studies that verify the efficacy of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid (HMB) intake over a longer time period among endurance athletes.  For this reason, researchers at the University of Toronto, Canada set out to study the effect of HMB supplementation on physical capacity, body composition, and levels of biochemical markers.  Sixteen elite male rowers were administered a 12-week HMB supplementation (3×1 gHMB per day) vs. placebo administration (PLA) in a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind crossover study. Over the course of the experiment, aerobic and anaerobic capacity were determined, while analyses were conducted on body composition, levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, testosterone, cortisol, and the T/C ratio.  Following HMB supplementation, both aerobic and anaerobic functions improved.  In turn, at the ventilatory threshold, a longer time was required to reach this point, while threshold load and threshold heart rate increased.  After HMB supplementation, fat mass decreased.  No differences were observed in any of the blood markers tested.  Researchers concluded that HMB intake in endurance training has an advantageous effect on the increase in aerobic capacity, increase in peak anaerobic power and the reduction of fat mass. (Durkalec-Michalski K, Jeszka J.  J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Jul 30;12:31). MMSN Featured Product:  MaxxTOR

Researchers at Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poland set out to study the effects of short-term omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFA) supplementation on neuromuscular function and physical performance in well-trained male athletes. Subjects completed a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-design study. At baseline, a blood sample was collected, and maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) with electromyography (EMG) along with various Wingate tests were performed. Participants were then randomly assigned to receive an N-3 PUFA or placebo for 21 days after which baseline testing was repeated.  Results showed plasma EPA was higher on N-3 PUFA than the placebo. N-3 PUFA supplementation had an unclear effect on MVC force but increased vastus lateralis EMG by 20  percent vs. placebo (very likely beneficial). N-3 PUFA supplementation reduced Wingate percent power drop by 4.76 percent vs. placebo (very likely beneficial).  Research concluded that N-3 PUFA supplementation improved peripheral neuromuscular function, reduced fatigue and improved aspects of sports performance.  (Lewis EJ, Radonic PW, Wolever TM, Wells GD.  J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Jun 18;12:28).  MN Featured Product:  Omega 3 Plus

Based on the current available objective literature, the conclusions of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) on Beta-Alanine (BA) are as follows:

  1. Four weeks of BA (4-6g daily) significantly augments muscle carnosine concentrations, thereby acting as an intracellular pH buffer.
  2. BA supplementation appears to be safe in healthy populations at recommended doses.
  3. The only reported side effect is paraesthesia (tingling), but this can be eliminated by using divided lower doses (1.6g) or using a sustained-release formula.
  4. Daily supplementation with 4-6g of BA for at least 2 to 4 weeks has been shown to improve exercise performance, with more pronounced effects in open end-point tasks/time trials lasting 1 to 4 min in duration.
  5. BA attenuates neuromuscular fatigue, particularly in older subjects, and preliminary evidence indicates that BA may improve tactical performance.
  6. Combining BA with other single or multi-ingredient supplements may be advantageous when supplementation of BA is high enough (4-6g daily) and long enough (min 4 weeks).
  7. More research is needed to determine the effects of BA on strength, endurance performance beyond 25 min in duration, and other health-related benefits associated with carnosine.

(Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Stout JR, et al.  J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Jul 15;12:30).
MMSN Featured Product: Max CarnoSyn


October Science News

Phosphatidic Acid With or Without Whey Protein
Promotes Muscle Anabolic Signaling Post-Exercise

The purpose of this study conducted at Auburn University was to examine if oral phosphatidic acid (PA) feeding acutely increases anabolic signaling markers and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) with and without whey protein concentrate (WPC).  This animal study used male rats that were randomly assigned to four groups: control (CON), PA (29 mg), WPC (197 mg), or PA?+?WPC.  Three hours post-feeding, gastrocnemius muscle was removed for markers of mTOR signaling, gene expression patterns related to skeletal muscle mass regulation and metabolism, and MPS analysis via the SUnSET method.  Researchers found that compared to CON rats, PA, WPC and PA?+?WPC resulted in a significant elevation in the phosphorylation of mTOR.  MPS levels in the gastrocnemius were significantly elevated in WPC versus CON rats, and tended to be elevated in PA versus CON rats.  This is the first in vivo evidence to demonstrate that PA tends to increases muscle protein synthesis during the post-feeding window.  (Mobley CB, Hornberger TA, Fox CD, et al.  J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:32).  MMSN Featured Product: MaxxTOR

Higher Protein Intake Improves Body Composition in Overweight and Obese Adults

Researchers from Purdue University conducted a study to assess the impact of total protein intake and changes in total protein intake on changes in body composition and metabolic syndrome indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program.  Men and women performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wks.  Results showed that the higher the intake of total protein or change in total protein intake with an exercise training program, the greater the changes in body mass, fat mass and BMI.  Researchers concluded that in conjunction with exercise training, higher total protein intake promoted positive changes in body composition but not in metabolic syndrome indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults.  Changes in total protein from before to during the intervention also influenced body composition responses and should be considered in future research when different amounts of total protein is achieved via diet or supplements.  (Campbell WW, Kim JE, Amankwaah AF, et al.  J Nutr. 2015 Aug 5.)  MMSN Featured Product: MaxPro

Probiotics May Play an Important Role in Obesity and Diabetes

More and more scientific evidence suggests that obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with specific changes in gut microbiota composition.  Researchers from the Biomedical Research Institute, Hospital Dr Josep Trueta of Girona, Spain set out to evaluate this association.  The mechanisms underlying the association of specific gut microbiota and metabolic disease include increasing energy harvest from the diet, changes in host gene expression, energy expenditure and storage, and alterations in gut permeability leading to metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation and insulin resistance.  In some studies, the modifications of gut microbiota induced by antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics led to improved inflammatory activity in parallel to amelioration of insulin sensitivity and decreased adiposity.  Researchers concluded that this fascinating role of gut microbiota on metabolic disease opens new avenues in the treatment of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.  (Esteve E, Ricart W, Fernandez-Real JM.  Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011 Sep;14(5):483-90).  MN Featured Product: Probiotic Complex


September Science News

More Protein: More Strength and Lean Mass
The objective of this study conducted at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School was to determine the associations between total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes and lean mass of the legs and quadriceps muscle strength. This cross-sectional study included men and women from the Framingham Offspring Cohort in Massachusetts. In both genders, leg lean mass was higher in participants in the highest quartiles of TP and AP intake. PP intake was not associated with lean mass in either sex. In men and women, quadriceps strength was higher in participants in the highest quartile of PP intake compared with those in the lowest quartile. Our findings suggest that maintaining adequate protein intake with age may help preserve muscle mass and strength in adult men and women and that dietary protein types may differentially affect muscle mass and strength. (Sahni S, Mangano KM, Hannan MT, Kiel DP, McLean RR. J Nutr. 2015 Jul;145(7):1569-75).
MMSN Featured Product: MaxPro

Fountain of Youth?
The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of citrulline supplementation on metabolism. Twenty-month-old male rats were randomly assigned to be fed either a citrulline-enriched diet or a standard diet for 12 weeks. Motor activity and muscle strength were measured, body composition was assessed and muscle metabolism and lipid metabolism were explored. Results showed that citrulline supplementation was associated with lower mortality, 9 percent higher lean body mass, greater muscle mass and 13 percent lower fat mass compared to the standard diet. Susceptibility to oxidation of lipoproteins was lower in citrulline-treated group. Researchers concluded that citrulline supplementation in rats favorably modulates body composition and protects against lipid oxidation and, thus, emerges as an interesting candidate to help prevent the aging process. (Moinard C, Le Plenier S, Noirez P, et al. J Nutr. 2015 Jul;145(7):1429-37.). MMSN Featured Product: Nitro 2

BCAAs Great for Body Composition and More
Researchers from the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil set out to assess the association of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) ingestion with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men. Special attention was given to leucine intake. In a cross-sectional study, 296 middle-aged men participated. Participants were classified by the occurrence of obesity, elevated blood lipids and metabolic syndrome. Subjects with the highest BCAA ingestion had the lowest occurrence of obesity, waist circumference, elevated blood lipids and metabolic syndrome. Researchers concluded that BCAA consumption supports ideal body composition and relevant cardiometabolic risk factors in a population of Brazilian middle-aged men. Researchers proposed that the content of leucine in BCAA consumption may have contributed to such relationships. (Cogate PG, Natali AJ, de Oliveira A, Alfenas RC, Hermsdorff HH. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19(7):771-7). MMSN Featured Product: Pro BCAA and Max BCAA